Abundant quantities of aluminium can be found at the Makhara Fishpacking plant which is at the far North-Eastern corner of the in-game map. You will need to unlock this location before you can enter the plant or the giant abandoned fish-factory.
If it is your first attempt, you may explore this area for some collectibles and items. Once you are done, you need to locate the giant elevator, which is placed to one corner of the big hallway.
Now just hit the elevator button to call the lift from the lower levels. Wait until the elevator comes up and then hop into it.
You need to go all the way down to the lowest level and follow the path along the rusted green coloured conveyor-belt further down the basement levels.
You will need to keep climbing down the stairs until you see the solid rocks which will eventually lead you to a heap of gold. As you proceed further down the passage, you will come across a shelf with empty trays arranged in stacks.
Each of these trays is worth one unit of aluminium and there are hundreds of them scattered around this place. Hence, it is imperative that you remove unwanted stuff from your inventory, before you start dumping these trays into the empty slots.
Aluminium is needed for electrical wiring, lighting, circuitry and robotic defence systems. So, it is a good idea to collect as many as you can from the conveyor belt inside the Makhra Fishpacking plant.
Next you can head over to the Milton General Hospital which hides rich deposits of copper. The only catch is that you should have already cleared the missions associated with this location in order to enter the hospital.
The hospital is located to the south of the Diamond City. Once you get there, just head to the parking garage which is located right across the street.
Go through the front entrance door and be wary of the traps and ghouls lurking in those shadowy corners as you move in. You need to get to the second or third floor of this building where you will find a bunch of bathroom weighing scales that you need to disarm.
For each bathroom scale that you disarm, you will receive one unit of copper and one unit of steel in your inventory. You can keep repeating this process as these scales will respawn at the same place, after a week's time in the game.
Just head to the Wildwood Cemetery, which is located at the centre of the map. It is basically a huge graveyard with plenty of feral ghouls patrolling the area.
You need to eliminate these ghouls, before you can enter the white building filled with vases. Just grab these vases to accumulate tons of ceramics in your inventory.
More vases and some flowers can be picked up when you stroll around the graves within the cemetery grounds.
Steel fibre-optics and crystals
Just head over to the basement of mayor's building in Jamaica Plain, where you can find tripped wires with laser beams. There are about 47 different trip wires which you need to disarm, before you can get inside.
Every trip wire you disarm, it will fetch you 1 unit of fibre-optics. You can repeat this process by retracing your path back to the security entrance and flipping the switch on to reactivate the trip wires.
Note: You can also buy out these supplies from local merchants in Diamond City by talking to them and exploring their inventories.
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Credits: Special thanks to Ross for the tips and video guide.